Picturing the plants: John Buchanan’s illustrations of New Zealand flora

With its dull marbled cover and tatty leather spine, the 32cm, 200 page volume known as ‘MS41 John Buchanan notebook’ has languished, wallflower-like, in the Auckland Museum’s manuscript collection for over a century.  Now its dance card is filling up, with outings this month to the Hocken Library in Dunedin for the exhibition Art in the Service of Science: Dunedin’s John Buchanan and a March 2013 showing in Auckland at the Gus Fisher Gallery planned.

This book shines a light into the corner of New Zealand’s science history and throws up the long shadow of the man who made it, botanist and Colonial Museum draughtsman, John Buchanan FLS (1819-1898). His sharp blue eyes noticed differences between the plants he had collected around Wellington in 1866 and the ‘official’ descriptions in Joseph Dalton Hooker’s newly published (but unillustrated) Handbook of New Zealand Flora, commissioned by the New Zealand Government.

The quality of Buchanan's illustrations shows drawing skills honed by years of designing floral patterns for printed calico in Scotland.

The quality of Buchanan's illustrations shows drawing skills honed by years of designing floral patterns for printed calico in Scotland.

Picking up a pencil and his tablets of watercolour, he started to sketch the dissimilarities he could see between the plant specimens in the Colonial Museum’s Wellington herbarium where he worked and the Handbook’s version of what the plant should look like.

A picture paints a thousand words, and his were drawing skills honed by years of designing floral patterns for printed calico in Scotland. This study of flowers led to a hunger for botanical knowledge satisfied by classes at the Glasgow Mechanics’ Institute taught by renowned botanist Roger Hennedy.

John Buchanan's illustration of Kohia, NZ passion fruit, Passiflora tetrandra from page nine of his notebook.

John Buchanan's illustration of Kohia, NZ passion fruit, Passiflora tetrandra from page nine of his notebook.

Penning notes as to where and when he collected the plants he depicts, he puzzles over the mismatches with Hooker’s descriptions.

The specimen of Pittosporum crassifolium is from a plant grown at Wellington, possibly at the Botanic Gardens where Buchanan oversaw the plantings. He writes: ‘It is difficult to make out what Hooker means by “bracts broadly ovate ciliate imbricate”.  There is no appearance of any bracts at all on the plant unless one or two floral leaves be considered so and they do not agree with the description.’

Buchanan's illustration and notes about Pittosporum crassifolium, page 115 of the notebook.

Buchanan's illustration and notes about Pittosporum crassifolium, page 115.

Elsewhere he delights in finding anomalies: the flowering rata Metrosideros florida ‘Petals distinctly yellow, differing from Hooker’s description of M.florida as pink.’

The flowering rata Metrosideros florida, page 25 of the notebook.

The flowering rata Metrosideros florida, page 25.

Hooker was working from dried specimens sent back to London by ship and had not seen all 935 flowering plants growing. Buchanan was constantly roaming New Zealand, collecting and observing colour in growing plants. When the specimen he is depicting has lost its gloss, he points this out.  With his stalk of kiekie, Freycinetia banksii, for example, he writes ‘the sienna tint on drawing is from decay’.

Buchanan was documenting the glorious variety of New Zealand flora from a time before rabbits, painstakingly illustrating what Hooker at Kew could only imagine. In the back of the book, (p.193) he moves on to depicting wood ear fungus found in Dr Hector’s garden in Petone in June 1885 which he bravely asserts should be called “Agaricus adhaerens” and annotates “N.Sp. [new species] J.B.”

Illustrations and notes about wood ear fungus, page 193 of Buchanan's notebook.

Illustrations and notes about wood ear fungus, page 193 of Buchanan's notebook.

Given that Buchanan spent most of his New Zealand time in Wellington or Dunedin, how did this treasure come to be found in Auckland?

Thomas Cheeseman (1845-1923), first curator of the Auckland Museum, might have known the answer. Buchanan visited Auckland in the 1880s as he neared retirement, promoting the creationist response to Darwin’s theory of natural selection. Maybe Buchanan took a liking to the younger enthusiast, and gave him his precious botanical?  Was it Cheeseman who scrawled ‘J.Buchanan’s notes’ in pencil on the first page?

Illustrations and notes about Maire tawake, Syzygium maire (= Eugenia maire), page 5 of the notebook.

Illustrations and notes about Maire tawake, Syzygium maire (= Eugenia maire), page 5.

Buchanan’s corrections of Hooker, neatly defined drawings and attention to Maori names would have helped Cheeseman in preparing his own definitive Manual of New Zealand Flora which appeared in 1906.  Illustrations by Miss Matilda Smith of Kew followed in 1914. Buchanan was long dead, but Cheeseman uses the book’s introduction to acknowledge his indebtedness to his predecessor.

Fulsome praise for Buchanan’s botanical and artistic accomplishment culminates in Buchanan’s 1865 ‘Sketch of the Botany of Otago’ being acclaimed as ‘the first local Flora issued in the colony, and a work of considerable merit, evidencing much industrious research’. It was likely to have been admiration for its maker that ensured that Cheeseman kept the notebook for Auckland Museum’s manuscripts collection, forever preserving the painted evidence of Buchanan’s superior botanical knowledge and artistic skills.

Watch an interview where Linda Tyler discusses John Buchanan on Dunedin’s Channel 9.

Read a biography on John Buchanan at the Dictionary of New Zealand Biography.

View twenty-one specimens in the Museum’s herbarium collected by John Buchanan.

View Auckland Museum’s record detail on Hooker’s Manual of the New Zealand flora.

View Auckland Museum’s record detail on Cheeseman’s Manual of the New Zealand flora.

Exhibition

The exhibition Art in the Service of Science: Dunedin’s John Buchanan will be at the Hocken Library, Dunedin, from 22 November 2012 until 9 February 2013 and at Gus Fisher Gallery, Auckland, from 1 March – 22 April 2013.  A symposium convened in celebration of John Buchanan New Zealand Artist, Botanist and Explorer will take place at Salmond College, Dunedin on 29 and 30 November 2012.

Comments

Melanie Cooper

November 27th, 2012 at 3:36 pm    


Thanks Linda for a fantastic blog. I’m in love all over again with these illustrations and marvel at the idea of Hooker (and others) working to describe the detail and features of living plants while looking at dried specimens.

Peter Buchanan

November 30th, 2012 at 11:00 pm    


Many thanks Linda for bringing John Buchanan’s accomplishments and contributions to NZ art and science to the attention of so many; and for organising with David Galloway the highly successful symposium on John Buchanan just completed. The associated museum exhibition extends your research’s reach hopefully to thousands, both in Dunedin and later in Auckland. Though I’m not knowingly related to John, it’s been wonderful to contribute a little about the wonderful and previously overlooked content of MS41.

Wesley

December 5th, 2012 at 2:50 pm    


Linda

Your blog is fascinating.
Thank you for reaching in and back and bringing these precious notes and images back to share with us.

Claude Buchanan

December 5th, 2012 at 3:50 pm    


Hi Linda,
Thanks for all your hard work in putting together the Data about John Buchanan and his work on NZ Flora.
I have a web site about the Clan Buchanan which includes an article dealing with John Buchanan, and I hope you won’t mind if I include the data sent to me by Dr. Peter Buchanan. You could access the site http://www.buchanan-heraldry

Claude Buchanan

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